A preposition is a word that expresses a relation between one entity in a clause to another. It connects a noun to the rest of a sentence.
Prepositions can indicate a time, a location, a relationship between two nouns.
about, after, against, at, between, by, down, for, from, in, into, near, of, off, on, out, over, since, through, until, to, towards, under, until, up, with, without.
There is a worm in the apple. (preposition of place)
There is a bus stop down the street. (preposition of place)
The child is next to her father. (preposition of place)
We will meet in the afternoon. (preposition of time)
I get up at 6.00 am every day. (preposition of time)
We couldn’t talk during the exam. (preposition of time)
Let’s bake a cake with chocolate chips. (preposition links “cake” and “chocolate chips”)
I would like some water with my dinner. (preposition links “water” and “dinner”)
Julia will ride with Sam. (preposition linking Julia and Sam)
A conjunction is a word that connects words or phrases in a sentence that have the grammatical function (noun + noun, verb + verb, adjective + adjective, etc). A conjunction also connects two clauses to make one sentence.
Common conjunctions are: and, but, or, nor.
Julia and Sam are going on vacation. (conjunction connecting subject Julia to subject Sam)
I walked and ate at the same time. (conjunction connecting verb “walked” to verb “ate”)
We want to buy a small but cozy house. (conjunction connecting adjective “small” to adjective “cozy”)
They can watch TV or rest in their room. (conjunction connecting infinitive “watch” to “infinitive “rest”).
When using more than two nouns/verbs/adjectives, we typically only use the conjunction once, and separate the other nouns/adjectives/verbs using a comma.
Julia, Sam and I are going on vacation. (Not: Julia and Sam and I…)
I walked, ate, and talked on the phone at the same time. (Not: I walked and ate and talked…)
A conjunction that introduces an dependent clause (a clause that cannot stand alone), or links to another clause that provides additional information, is called a subordinate conjunction.
Common subordinate conjunctions are: if, because, when, until, since, as, even,
You should be able to attach all documents, once you log into your account. (“once” links the first clause to the second, dependent clause.)
I will not be able to answer my phone, if you call me before noon. (“if” connects the first clause to the second, dependent clause.)
She missed her doctors appointment, because she left the meeting late. (“because” connects the first clause to the second, dependent clause.)
Paired Conjunctions/Correlative Conjunctions
Paired conjunctions are conjunctions that are typically always used together. We use them in two different parts of the sentence to make them work
Common paired conjunctions are: not only… but also, either… or, neither…. nor…, both… and”. Their purpose is still to connect one clause/entity of a sentence to another but, unlike other conjunctions, they can not be used alone. They need their partner conjunction. They are usually used for emphasis.
Not only was she late, but she also hadn’t completed her homework.
Neither my mother, nor my father made it to the performance.
Both Sam and Julia will be coming to the party.